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Stanković, R.S., Astola, J., From Boolean Logic to Switching Circuits and Automata - Towards Modern Information Technology (Studies in Computational Intelligence), Springer 2011,

ISBN-10: 3642116817

ISBN-13: 978-3642116810

Logic networks and automata are facets of digital systems. The change of the design of logic networks from skills and art into a scientific discipline was possible by the development of the underlying mathematical theory called the Switching Theory. The fundamentals of this theory come from the attempts towards an algebraic description of laws of thoughts presented in the works by George J. Boole and the works on logic by Augustus De Morgan.   As often the case in engineering, when the importance of a problem and the need for solving it reach certain limits, the solutions are searched by many scholars in different parts of the word, simultaneously or at about the same time, however, quite independently and often unaware of  the work by other scholars. The formulation and rise of Switching Theory is such an example.   This book presents a brief account of the developments of Switching Theory and highlights some less known facts in the history of it.  The readers will find the book a fresh look into the development of the field revealing how difficult it has been to arrive at many of the concepts that we now consider obvious. Researchers in the history or philosophy of computing will find this book a valuable source of information that complements the standard presentations of the topic.


karpovsky-stankovic-astola-reducedKarpovsky, M.G., Stanković, R.S., Astola, J.T., Spectral Logic and Its Applications for the Design of Digital Devices, Wiley, 2008, 
ISBN-10: 0471731889
ISBN-13: 978-0471731887

There is heightened interest in spectral techniques for the design of digital devices dictated by ever increasing demands on technology that often cannot be met by classical approaches. Spectral methods provide a uniform and consistent theoretic environment for recent achievements in this area, which appear divergent in many other approaches. Spectral Logic and Its Applications for the Design of Digital Devices gives readers a foundation for further exploration of abstract harmonic analysis over finite groups in the analysis, design, and testing of digital devices. After an introduction, this book provides the essential mathematical background for discussing spectral methods.

This is the authoritative reference for computer science and engineering professionals and researchers with an interest in spectral methods of representing discrete functions and related applications in the design and testing of digital devices.


astolastankovicfundamentalsrAstola, J.T., Stanković, R.S., Fundamentals of Switching Theory and Logic Design, Springer, 2006,
ISBN-10 0387-28593-8
ISBN-13 978-0387285931
ISBN-e 978-0-387-30311-6
Edition for India, Springer (India) ISBN 978-81-8128-804-2

Switching theory and logic design provide mathematical foundations and tools for digital system design that is an essential part in the research and development in almost all areas of modern technology. The vast complexity of modern digital systems implies that they can only be handled by computer aided design tools that are built on sophisticated mathematical models.Fundamentals of Switching Theory and Logic Design is aimed at providing an accessible introduction to these mathematical techniques that underlie the design tools and that are necessary for understanding their capabilities and limitations.
As is typical to many disciplines a high level of abstraction enables a unified treatment of many methodologies and techniques as well as provides a deep understanding of the subject in general. The drawback is that without a hands-on touch on the details it is difficult to develop an intuitive understanding of the techniques. We try to combine these views by providing hands-on examples on the techniques while binding these to the more general theory that is developed in parallel. For instance, the use of vector spaces and group theory unifies the spectral (Fourier-like) interpretation of polynomial, and graphic (decision diagrams) representations of logic functions, as well as provides new methods for optimization of logic functions.
Consequently, Fundamentals of Switching Theory and Logic Design discusses the fundamentals of switching theory and logic design from a slightly alternative point of view and also presents links between switching theory and related areas of signal processing and system theory. It also covers the core topics recommended in IEEE/ACM curricula for teaching and study in this area. Further, it contains several elective sections discussing topics for further research work in this area.

yanushkevichmillershmerkostankovicrYanushkevich, S.N.,   Miller, D.M., Shmerko, V.P., Stanković, R.S., Decision Diagram Techniques for Micro- and Nanoelectronic Design Handbook,  CRC Press, 2005,

ISBN-10: 0849334241

ISBN-13: 978-0849334245

Decision diagram (DD) techniques are very popular in the electronic design automation (EDA) of integrated circuits, and for good reason. They can accurately simulate logic design, can show where to make reductions in complexity, and can be easily modified to model different scenarios.

Presenting DD techniques from an applied perspective, Decision Diagram Techniques for Micro- and Nanoelectronic Design Handbook provides a comprehensive, up-to-date collection of DD techniques. Experts with more than forty years of combined experience in both industrial and academic settings demonstrate how to apply the techniques to full advantage with more than 400 examples and illustrations. Beginning with the fundamental theory, data structures, and logic underlying DD techniques, they explore a breadth of topics from arithmetic and word-level representations to spectral techniques and event-driven analysis. The book also includes abundant references to more detailed information and additional applications.

Decision Diagram Techniques for Micro- and Nanoelectronic Design Handbook collects the theory, methods, and practical knowledge necessary to design more advanced circuits and places it at your fingertips in a single, concise reference.


Stanković, R.S., Moraga, C., Astola, J.T., Fourier Analysis on Finite Groups with Applications in Signal Processing and System Design, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2005,
ISBN-10: 0471694630
ISBN-13: 978-0471694632

The majority of publications in spectral techniques consider Fourier transform on Abelian groups. However, non-Abelian groups provide notable advantages in efficient implementations of spectral methods.
Fourier Analysis on Finite Groups with Applications in Signal Processing and System Design examines aspects of Fourier analysis on finite non-Abelian groups and discusses different methods used to determine compact representations for discrete functions providing for their efficient realizations and related applications. Switching functions are included as an example of discrete functions in engineering practice. Additionally, consideration is given to the polynomial expressions and decision diagrams defined in terms of Fourier transform on finite non-Abelian groups.

Stanković, R.S., Astola, J.T., Spectral Interpretation of Decision Diagrams, Springer, 2003 

ISBN-13 978-0387955452

Decision diagrams (DDs) are data structures for efficient (time/space) representations of large discrete functions. In addition to their wide application in engineering practice, DDs are now a standard part of many CAD systems for logic design and a basis for severe signal processing algorithms. Spectral Interpretation of Decision Diagrams derives from attempts to classify and uniformly interpret DDs through spectral interpretation methods, relating them to different Fourier-series-like functional expressions for discrete functions and a group-theoretic approach to DD optimization. The book examines DDs found in literature and engineering practice and provides insights into relationships between DDs and different polynomial or spectral expressions for representation of discrete functions. In addition, it offers guidelines and criteria for selection of the most suitable representation in terms of space and time complexity. The work complements theory with numerous illustrative examples from practice. Moreover, the importance of DD representations to the verification and testing of arithmetic circuits is addressed, as well as problems related to various signal processing tasks.


welding_processWELDING PROCESSES

Chapter 11

Analytical Model for Estimating the Amount of Heat Generated During Friction Stir Welding: Application on Plates Made of Aluminium Alloy 2024 T351

By Miroslav Mijajlović and Dragan Milčic

ISBN: 978-953-51-0854-2

Miroslav Mijajlović and Dragan Milčic (2012). Analytical Model for Estimating the Amount of Heat Generated During Friction Stir Welding: Application on Plates Made of Aluminium Alloy 2024 T351, Welding Processes, Dr. Radovan Kovacevic (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0854-2, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/53563.

Available from:

elsevir-coverELSEVIER 2013


Miodrag S. Petković, University of Niš, Serbia
Beny Neta, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA
Ljiljana D. Petković, University of Niš, Serbia
Jovana Džunić, University of Niš, Serbia

ISBN: 978-0-12-397013-8

299 pages

Multipoint iterative methods belong to the class of the most efficient methods for solving nonlinear equations of the form f(x) = 0. Interest in multipoint methods has grown for two principal reasons. The first is that root solvers based on multipoint methods overcome theoretical limits of one point methods related to the convergence order and computational efficiency. Secondly, with the significant progress and developments made in computer hardware and software (multi-precision arithmetic and symbolic computation), implementation and convergence analysis of multipoint methods with the capability to generate root approximations of very high accuracy have become possible.
     This book is the first on the topic and explains the most cutting-edge methods needed for precise calculations and explores the development of powerful algorithms to solve research problems. Multipoint methods have an extensive range of practical applications significant in research areas such as signal processing, analysis of convergence rate, fluid mechanics, solid state physics, and many others.
      This book offers the reader both a systematic introduction to techniques for developing multipoint methods and a unified presentation of the multipoint iterative methods constructed during the last fifty years. The results presented in the book mainly reflect the research conducted over the past decade, and are devoted to multipoint methods that attain maximal order of convergence with a fixed number of function evaluations.
      Intended as a combination of theoretical results, algorithmic aspects and symbolic computation, Multipoint Methods for Solving Nonlinear Equations serves as a text for students in math and applied math courses. It is also a reliable, well-structured professional reference for numerical analysts, engineers, physicists and computer scientists.